Contact laws

Contact resolution in Woo is divided into 3 mostly-orthogonal steps:

  1. geometry computation, where local contact coordinates are updated and relative velocities and interpenetration are computed. These algorithms are detailed for different shape combinations in the respective section; they use data from particle shapes and create/update a CGeom instance.

  2. physical contact properties computation, which take data from contacting materials and create (usually this is done only when the contact is created the first time, but can be updated at request) a CPhys instance.

  3. contact resolution, which uses data from CGeom and CPhys to compute response of the contact – this usually entails force and torque, but other effect are possible.

These 3 steps are done by CGeomFunctor, CPhysFunctor and LawFunctor, and the functors used are selected by dispatchers hidden inside the ContactLoop engine. Moreover, since usually the woo.dem.DemField.minimalEngines is used in conjunction with woo.models.ContactModelSelector to build the engine sequence, the details might not be familiar even to seaseoned Woo users. Let’s look at its output (with all defaults, i.e. using the linear contact model):

Woo[1]: import woo.dem

Woo[2]: ee=woo.dem.DemField.minimalEngines()

Woo[3]: loop=[e for e in ee if isinstance(e,woo.dem.ContactLoop)][0] # when inserted into scene, accessible as S.lab.contactLoop by virtue of Engine.label

Woo[4]: loop.geoDisp.functors
[<Cg2_Sphere_Sphere_L6Geom @ 0x3b8ed10>,
 <Cg2_Facet_Sphere_L6Geom @ 0x4562ca0>,
 <Cg2_Wall_Sphere_L6Geom @ 0x437c1e0>,
 <Cg2_InfCylinder_Sphere_L6Geom @ 0x4584d30>,
 <Cg2_Ellipsoid_Ellipsoid_L6Geom @ 0x4577ef0>,
 <Cg2_Sphere_Ellipsoid_L6Geom @ 0x45b3ee0>,
 <Cg2_Wall_Ellipsoid_L6Geom @ 0x442dd10>,
 <Cg2_Wall_Facet_L6Geom @ 0x441d990>,
 <Cg2_Rod_Sphere_L6Geom @ 0x446ec40>,
 <Cg2_Wall_Capsule_L6Geom @ 0x445fbf0>,
 <Cg2_Capsule_Capsule_L6Geom @ 0x456c590>,
 <Cg2_InfCylinder_Capsule_L6Geom @ 0x4579590>,
 <Cg2_Facet_Capsule_L6Geom @ 0x45c0820>,
 <Cg2_Sphere_Capsule_L6Geom @ 0x42719d0>,
 <Cg2_Facet_Facet_L6Geom @ 0x45c64a0>,
 <Cg2_Facet_InfCylinder_L6Geom @ 0x43b7b70>,
 <Cg2_Cone_Sphere_L6Geom @ 0x42bfa60>]

Woo[5]: loop.phyDisp.functors
Out[5]: [<Cp2_FrictMat_FrictPhys @ 0x3b8d7b0>]

Woo[6]: loop.lawDisp.functors
Out[6]: [<Law2_L6Geom_FrictPhys_IdealElPl @ 0x3306e50>]

We can see that functors are named with the Cg2, Cp2 and Law2 prefix respectively (since they take 2 instances as arguments (2 shapes, 2 materials and, finally the couple of contact geometry and contact physics produced by the first 2 functors); the name is further comprised of accepted types of the arguments (for Cp2 functors, if it accepts both materials of the same type, it is writte out just once), and ends with the instance which is produced (except contact law, which does not produce an instance; a suffix defining the algorithm is added instead).

Thus to compute e.g. contact between Sphere and Capsule made of FrictMat, we need

  1. Cg2_Sphere_Capsule_L6Geom which resolves the geometry, and produces/updates L6Geom;

  2. Cp2_FrictMat_FrictPhys which computes physical contact parameters from FrictMat and produces FrictPhys;

  3. Law2_L6Geom_FrictPhys_IdealElPl which applies contact forces, consuming data from the previous steps (we could use any other Law2_L6Geom_FrictPhys_* class suitable for our task).

Note that types produced by the first two functors match types consumed by the last one; if that is not the case, the dispatch will fail and runtime error will occur.

Thus we can imitate woo.dem.DemField.minimalEngines by hand as follows:

import woo.core
from woo.dem import *
      InsertionSortCollider([Bo1_Sphere_Aabb(),Bo1_Capsule_Aabb(),Bo1_Wall_Aabb()]), # and so on
         [Cg2_Sphere_Capsule_L6Geom(),Cg2_Sphere_Sphere_L6Geom()], # ..., as needed

This knowledge is important so that we can write and test our new contact law properly.

New contact law

Assuming we can use already-existing Cg2 and Cp2 functors, writing a contact law is fairly easy, provided the mathematical formulation is ready. The L6Geom class provides relative velocity and rotations at contact point, and normal interpenetration (computed – usually – non-incrementally), all expressed in local coordinates; L6 means local-coordinates with 6 degrees of freedom (3 translations and 3 rotations).

This would be a simplified but working code for the linear-elastic and plastic law implemented in woo.dem.Law2_L6Geom_FrictPhys_IdealElPl:

/* header pkg/dem/MyLaw.hpp */

#pragma once

struct Law2_L6Geom_FrictPhys_MyLaw: public LawFunctor{
   bool go(const shared_ptr<CGeom>&, const shared_ptr<CPhys>&, const shared_ptr<Contact>&) override;
   // declared types that the functor accepts
   #define woo_dem_Law2_L6Geom_FrictPhys_MyLaw__CLASS_BASE_DOC_ATTRS \
      Law2_L6Geom_FrictPhys_MyLaw,LawFunctor,"Some documentation", \
      ((int,attr,0,,"Some attribute"))

/* implementation pkg/dem/MyLaw.cpp */


bool Law2_L6Geom_FrictPhys_MyLaw::go(const shared_ptr<CGeom>& cg, const shared_ptr<CPhys>& cp, const shared_ptr<Contact>& C){
   // shorhands
   const L6Geom& g(cg->cast<L6Geom>()); FrictPhys& ph(cp->cast<FrictPhys>());
   // break contact if there is separation between particles
   if(g.uN>0) return false;
   // normal force
   // work with y-z subvector of force as with a Vector2r
   Eigen::Map<Vector2r> Ft(&ph.force[1]);
   // compute trial tangential force, as increment from relative velocity
   // Coulomb slip: maximum tangential force norm
   Real maxFt=ph.force[0]*ph.tanPhi;
      Ft*=maxFt/Ft.norm(); // work out floating-point corner-cases
   // keep the contact
   return true;

One can note that both contact geometry (interpenetration and mutual relative velocity at the contact point) and the response (force and torque) are conveniently expressed in contact-local coordinates, thus the normal-tangential separation is simply expressed by axes orthogonality. The force & torque is applied on contacting particles by ContactLoop (for mono-monal particles, to be precise), it is something the contact law itself is not responsible for.

Energy tracking (which is highly recommended, as it makes it possible to test for energy conservation by the contact law) might make the code a bit more complicated, as elasic and plastic contributions need to be computed if desired. The reader is referred to the source of woo.dem.Law2_L6Geom_FrictPhys_IdealElPl for details. Energy computation should be avoided when not requested, hence the if(unlikely(scene->trackEnergy)) conditionals around those parts of the code.

If the contact law is complex (e.g. entails iterative computation), it is advised to use timing services (In-engine and in-functor timing) for profiling the performance and determining bottlenecks.

New material class

More often than not, new contact law will need more information about the particle’s materials.

In that case, one needs to define a new material class holding all parameters necessary for the model. This is not complicated in itself, but there are a few ingredients involved (see e.g. pkg/dem/FrictMat.hpp):

  1. Defining the material class itself (in that case woo.dem.FrictMat);

  2. Defining woo.dem.CPhysFunctor functor which can compute contact properties from those 2 materials (or combination with other materials) (woo.dem.Cp2_FrictMat_FrictPhys)

  3. Defining woo.dem.CPhys which will hold results of the Cp2 functor and pass them to the contact law itself.

Obviously one has to adjust the engine/functor sequence as exaplined above, so that the new classes are picked up and used by Woo.


Often one can start the implementation with FrictPhys and only add material parameters are attributes of the Law2 functor, hard-coding them for first experimentation, and only later turn them into proper attributes of a new Material subclass, which will be processed (averaged, whatever) by the new Cp2 functor, to produce the new type of CPhys required by the contact law.

Testing contact laws

There are special tools to see whether the programmed behavior is identical to the one mathematically formulated. One of the most useful one is to prescribe mutual motion on particles (in contact-local coordinates) and record contact response (also in contact-local coordinates). For example, the examples/ script uses the following:

       # compress
       # shear while not moving in the normal sense
       # unload in the normal sense; shear force should follow the plastic surface
       LawTesterStage(values=(1e-4,0,0,0,0,0),whats='v.....',until='not C'),

where each LawTesterStage defines loading stage using 6 values (along 6 DoFs), which can be initial velocity, constant velocity, force or free (whats) and terminating condition until of the respective stage. You can study the full examples/ and other similar scripts to explore the functionality. Since the concrete law has a rather complex yield surface formulation, it is loaded in compression, then in shear, and unloaded in compression, with the following result:


Fig. 51 Plot from loading 2-particle contact using the concrete contact law with LawTester stages as shown above.


Report issues or inclarities to github.